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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 66-70

Investigation of relationship between metacognitive strategies and self-concept with social compatibility of high school student in the city of Karaj


1 Department of Psychology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Education, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

Date of Web Publication13-Sep-2016

Correspondence Address:
Monirosadat Hosseini
Department of Education, Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395, 3697 Tehran
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2395-2555.190470

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  Abstract 

The present research was aimed at investigating the relationship between metacognitive strategies and self-concept with social compatibility of high school student in the city of Karaj. The statistical population of the study included all male and female high school students of the city of Karaj in the educational year of 2014-2015. The sample size was 100 people selected through simple random method. Tools for collecting data included the metacognitive test  (MSLQ) Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, Wilson self-concept, and the California personality assessment. The research falls under the correlation research. Results from the analysis of data implicated that there was a meaningful relationship between social compatibility and self-concept while no such meaningful relation did exist between social compatibility and metacognitive strategies. Meantime, self-concept was the only factor that was capable to predict social compatibility, whereas metacognitive strategies were not predicting social compatibility.

Keywords: High school, metacognitive strategies, self-concept, social compatibility


How to cite this article:
Kamarzarin H, Hosseini M. Investigation of relationship between metacognitive strategies and self-concept with social compatibility of high school student in the city of Karaj. Eur J Psychol Educ Studies 2015;2:66-70

How to cite this URL:
Kamarzarin H, Hosseini M. Investigation of relationship between metacognitive strategies and self-concept with social compatibility of high school student in the city of Karaj. Eur J Psychol Educ Studies [serial online] 2015 [cited 2017 Mar 23];2:66-70. Available from: http://www.ejpes.org/text.asp?2015/2/3/66/190470


  Introduction Top


Metacognition can be defined as any type of knowledge or cognitive process wherein there are assessment, monitoring, or social controls. For the first time, Piaget used the concept of metacognition implicitly because the Piaget's nominal thinking has clearly a metacognitive nature because it entails thinking about propositions, hypotheses, and perception likelihoods which have a cognitive nature. However, Piaget did not apply the term metacognition. Maybe, the first psychologist who brought this term into the cognitive psychology realm explicitly was Flavell. [1] Put it simply, metacognition refers to knowledge of cognition or knowing. [2] A metacognitive activity happens when the learner consciously monitors and navigates his learning strategies while solving problems and purposive thinking. [3] In other words, the metacognition of knowledge is the individual's awareness of his own cognitive system or knowledge about knowledge. Metacognitive knowledge helps us consider our own progress by the time of learning and knowing affairs. Furthermore, this body of knowledge helps us assess our effort results and measure our own dominance level over some material we read.

Metacognitive strategies are tactics for monitoring over cognitive strategies and controlling and navigating them where they can be divided into three classes of planning strategies, monitoring and assessment strategies, and regulation strategies. [2] Social conformity or compatibility which generally becomes adjusted with the collective life is among the most important principles in investigating the human social behavior. Social compatibility is concerned with accepting and doing appropriate conducts being in line with the environment and environmental changes, and the antonym concept is incompatibility, meaning showing inappropriate reaction to environmental stimuli and situations. It is harmful for the person or others or both of them, resulting not to meet one's own expectations. When we say someone is adjusted with others, it means he collaborates with them and adapts with the environment. Compatibility assumes importance when we judge the human relation with the society. Compatibility concerns the behavior of individual with others so that no problem would arise. We consider a human as compatible when he accepts others' logical issues and behaviors, and if he cannot be compatible in an environment, there is another environment for him. [3] Adler states that when a conflict erupts between beliefs relating to the actual self and the ideal self, feeling of humility emerges. Karen Horny states a solution for conflict could be creating an ideal self-imagination which is partly but not fully fantasy and delusional. Self-concept is a clear definition of personal characteristics and one's values on the public and economic grounds. In another definition, self-concept is the totality of perceptions, we have about ourselves, i.e. our own perceptions and feedbacks about ourselves; self-concept is a language, we apply when characterizing ourselves. [4]

Shilling [5] maintains that self, self-concept, and self-structure are an organized group of perceptions of the "ego" characteristics and perceptions relating to "ego" relations with others and various life aspects. These perceptions are followed by values. Hejari, [6] having a contradictory impression, defines self-concept as the individual's theory of self as an experiential person with functional properties. He states that people use this theory for organizing their own experiences and attempt to maximize the level of satisfaction, they experience about themselves and minimize the level of inconvenience. [8] Results by Bahrami and Rezavan's [7] study indicate that girls more than boys have positive metacognitive strategies (including positive beliefs about concerns) and they make use of them as confrontation against pressure and stressful and maladjusted factors and conditions. They also have more negative metacognitive strategies (including uncontrollability and risk of thoughts) than boys. Research findings by Toozande Jani et al. [8] implicate the effectiveness of behavioral-cognitive training on social compatibility and self-esteem of students. However, this training in accordance with demographic properties of subjects was not found to be significantly related to their self-esteem and social compatibility. In other words, training self-esteem given the individual characteristics of subjects did not have a different impact. Regarding the mentioned material, the research aimed to investigate the relationship between metacognitive strategies and self-concept with the social compatibility of high school students in the city of Karaj.


  Methodology Top


The present research was aimed at investigating the relationship between metacognitive strategies and self-concept with social compatibility of high school students in the city of Karaj. The statistical population of the study included all male and female high school students in the educational year of 2014-2015. The sample size was 100 subjects selected randomly from the study population. The reason of using this sampling method was because of the disparity of students at various schools of the city of Karaj. The instruments used for collecting data included the metacognitive test (MSLQ), Wilson self-concept, and the California personality assessment.

Metacognition questionnaire (MSLQ)

Spontaneous strategic questionnaire for learning is a spontaneous tool which is mostly used for assessment of the students' study orientation and the way they use learning strategies. This questionnaire consists of three parts: The first part is related to motivation. The second part measures cognitive and metacognitive strategies, and the third part explores learning strategies relating to managing resources. The cognitive and metacognitive strategies part involves four components including extension, organizing, critical thinking, and metacognitive self-adjustment. Research findings revealed that this questionnaire has good validity and reliability. [9]

Wilson self-concept questionnaire

This scale was prepared by Caroll-Wilson [10] in 2007 and has 19 items designed for measuring the educational self-concept and perceived difficulty of assignment in the classroom. This tool has three subscales including student's self-concept, learner's self-concept, and perceived difficulty of assignment. As stated before, this questionnaire has 19 items on a 7-value scale varying from totally disagree (1) to totally agree (7). The reliability reported by Caroll-Wilson, [10] for the subscales of student's self-concept, learner's self-concept, and perceived difficulty of assignment were 86, 87 and 91, respectively, and for the whole scale, it was 88, which are acceptable for the purpose of this study.

California personality assessment questionnaire

California personality assessment questionnaire is on the ground of social compatibility which includes yes and no and has 90 questions where the scoring method of this test is in the form of 0 to 1 (no and yes). The reliability and validity of this questionnaire have been assessed in various researches. Naderi [11] reported the reliability coefficient of this test as 0.78 for social compatibility. The reliability of the questionnaire through Cronbach's alpha was 0.64.

Data analysis

After collecting the questionnaires, data analysis was done via SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) program. Statistical methods applied for analyzing hypotheses were conducted in two descriptive and inferential parts. In the descriptive statistical part methods such as frequency, frequency percentage, mean, standard deviation, and the minimum and maximum scores were applied. In the inferential statistical part, the Pearson correlation coefficient for the relation of coordination between metacognitive strategies and self-concept with social compatibility and its components was used and also regression method was applied for predicting social compatibility by metacognitive strategies and self-concept.


  Result Top


First hypothesis

There is a meaningful relationship between metacognitive strategies and social compatibility of high school students. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used for analyzing the first hypothesis.

According to [Table 1], the Pearson correlation coefficient obtained from the analysis was 0.22 which is not statistically meaningful at the level of P < 0.01. This means there is no significant relationship between metacognitive strategies and social compatibility. Therefore, the research hypothesis stating the existence of metacognitive strategies and social compatibility of the high school students is not supported.
Table 1: The Pearson correlation coefficient test for the level of coordination between metacognitive strategies and social compatibility


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Second hypothesis

there is a meaningful relationship between self-concept and social compatibility of high school students. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used for analyzing the first hypothesis.

As [Table 2] indicates, the Pearson correlation coefficient obtained from the analysis was 0.46 which is not statistically meaningful at the level of P < 0.05. The positive sign of the correlation coefficient implicates a direct and significant relationship. This means there is a significant relationship between self-concept and social compatibility. Therefore, self-concept will improve social compatibility among the high school students. Hence, the research hypothesis stating the existence of self-concept and social compatibility of the high school students is supported.
Table 2: The Pearson correlation coefficient test for the level of coordination between metacognitive strategies and self-concept


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Third hypothesis

Metacognitive strategies and self-concept predict social compatibility. To investigate the mentioned question, regression was applied.

According to [Table 3], the F-test value for investigating the impacts of social compatibility on metacognitive strategies and self-concept 3.631 at P < 0.05 is significant. The R2 indicates that 0.21 of metacognitive strategies variance and self-concept is explained by social compatibility. In this line, it should be added that only self-concept with β = −0.44 is able to predict social compatibility, and metacognitive strategies cannot predict social compatibility.
Table 3: Regression results for determining the predictive power of social compatibility by metacognitive strategies an self-concept


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  Discussion and Conclusion Top


The present research was aimed at investigating the relationship between metacognitive strategies and self-concept with social compatibility of high school students in the city of Karaj. In this research, three hypotheses were investigated; First hypothesis: There is a meaningful relationship between metacognitive strategies and social compatibility of high school students. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used for analyzing the first hypothesis. In line with [Table 1], the Pearson correlation coefficient obtained from the analysis was 0.22 which is not statistically meaningful at the level of P < 0.01. This means there is no significant relationship between metacognitive strategies and social compatibility. Therefore, the research hypothesis stating existence of metacognitive strategies and social compatibility of the high school students is not supported. This finding is in conformity with research finding by Toozande Jani et al., [8] and Bahrami and Rezvan. [7] To account for this finding, we can say that processing social information is subsequent step performance of processing. Adept processing in each step will result in a meritorious performance in a special situation and a reciprocal or incomplete processing, thereby leading to social incompatibility. To Wells and Mathius, [12] we can say that some of the special aspects of metacognitive strategies are related to social compatibility. [13]

The second hypothesis states that there is a meaningful relationship between self-concept and social compatibility of high school students. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used for analyzing the hypothesis. [Table 2] indicated that the Pearson correlation coefficient obtained from the analysis was 0.46, which is not statistically meaningful at the level of P < 0.05. This means there is a significant direct relationship between self-concept and social compatibility. Therefore, self-concept will improve social compatibility among the high school students. This finding is in coordination with research results by Kazemi et al., [14] and Fonooni. [15] In this regard, we can say that people act based on perception, they have about themselves. [15] In fact, human social compatibility is a reflection of his self-concept. Undoubtedly, the adults' success in compatibility with different living conditions and personal and collective issues is largely affected by their self-concept. [9] Those who have positive self-concept expose more special compatibility. [16] Therefore, self-concept is the core of all personal and social behaviors. If the individual's self-concept is positively formed, it will lay the ground for the capacity of compatibility for dealing with various situations and if that self-concept is found to be negative, compatibility will be affected the same.

Third hypothesis stated that metacognitive strategies and self-concept predict social compatibility. Regression analysis was applied to test the hypothesis. R indicates a relation between variables. According to [Table 3], the F-test value for investigating the impact of social compatibility on metacognitive strategies and self-concept at 3.631 at P < 0.05 is significant. The R2 indicates that 0.21 of metacognitive strategies variance and self-concept is explained by social compatibility. In this line, it should be added that only self-concept with β = −0.44 is able to predict social compatibility, and metacognitive strategies cannot predict social compatibility. This finding corresponds with Bahrami and Rezvan's findings. [7] Cubukcu [17] found that self-perception is a cognitive and social concept and is taught in line with social development and receiving behavioral norms in childhood.

People, in interaction with the society, attain an image which forms the shape of self-concept in adulthood. If the individual has a positive image of his own entirety, he will try to maintain that image in his social behavior. Furthermore, in reciprocal relations, receiving positive feedback from the environment, reinforces the individual's self-concept and leads him to more social compatibility. An individual who has negative perceptions to his own abilities will reflect these images variously in his own acts, thereby rendering his rejection by the society.

Financial support and sponsorship

This project sponsored by PNU Alborz province and in particular credit (Grant) has been performed.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

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Hejari S. Do you know what role "self-concept" plays in your children's social compatibility? J Payvand 2005; 3:294-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Bahrami F, Rezvan S. Relation of anxious thoughts with metacognitive beliefs among high school students suffering from comprehensive anxiety disorder. J Psychiatry Clin Psychol 2008;13:249-55.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Toozande Jani H, Sedighi K, Nejat H, Kamalpoor N. Relative effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral training of self-esteem on social compatibility of students. J Know Res Educ Sci 2008;21:41-56.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Naderi KN. A Comparative Investigation of Self-Concept, Personality Type and Professional Desires Among Boy and Girl Students Studying In Pre University Level of Shahre Kurd, M.A. Thesis in Psychology, Alzahra University; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Wells A. Further tests of cognitive model of GAD and PhD. Behav Ther 2001;34:881-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Sharifi R. Prediction of students' mental health based on stress and their coping methods. RJPBCS, Quarterly Med Purification 2009;53:89-98.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Kazemi E, Noori A, Gholizade A. Exploring self-concept and social compatibility of staff working at the general bureau of culture and Islamic guidance. J Know Res Psychol 2003;17:21-35.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Fonooni TS. Exploring Self-Concept and Social Compatibility with Academic Achievement of First Year High School Girls, District 10 of Tehran's Education, M.A, Thesis University of Tarbyat Moalem, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Cubukcu F. Metacognition in the classroom. World conference on educational sciences. Proced Soc Behav Sci 2009;1:559-63.  Back to cited text no. 17
    



 
 
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