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Determinants of adolescent stress: A narrative review
Kallol Roy, Veena Ganesh Kamath, Asha Kamath
April-June 2015, 2(2):48-56
Aim: Stress has become an inevitable part of our daily life. Adolescence can be considered one such stage in our life where we experience various stressors. Globally, studies have reported the adolescent stress levels range from 20% to 45%. The objective of this literature review was to identify the common determinants of stress and coping strategies among mid aged adolescents by reviewing observational studies published between the years 2003 and 2013. Methodology: Academic databases including PubMed, PsychInfo, EMBASE, Biomedcentral, and Science Direct were included for the search. STROBE checklist was used to assess the quality of the studies and data extraction. Result: A total of 12 studies were selected for the review for the study design; sample and population; settings; tools used; objectives and the results of the study. Based on our review, it could be reported that adolescents were more concerned about the socioeconomic status of parents, financial conditions, and academic life. The most common coping strategies used by adolescent boys are distraction and relaxation. Contrasting these features, the girls use more avoidance coping, more willing to seek support, resolving conflicts, and the always openly express their emotions. With comparison to boys, girls are kept under a strict supervision and given much less freedom which makes them prone to be more stressed. Conclusion: Focus should be directed to the mental health issues faced by adolescents. Studies addressing the prevalence of stress and interventions to counter the same must be conducted. Both adolescent boys and girls seem to be affected by stress in some way or the other. Supportive care from parents, teachers and health professionals is the need of the hour.
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Early math learning with tablet PCs: The role of action
Peter J.N. Dejonckheere, Ad W Smitsman, Annemie Desoete, Birgit Haeck, Kimberly Ghyselinck, Kevin Hillaert, Katleen Coppenolle
July-September 2015, 2(3):79-87
Context: The present study is about computer assisted learning (CAI) and how it facilitates early math learning in 4-6-year-old children. Aim: Trying to demonstrate how changes in estimation accuracy are a result of different behavioral or action organizations during playing with a numerical board game on a tablet PC. Settings and Design: A pre-posttest design and a training intervention was used. Statistical Analysis Used: In order to measure childrens' estimation accuracy (N = 179), the percent absolute error scores were calculated and compared in a pretest and a posttest. Further, each child's best fitting linear function (R΂lin) was computed in order to find out whether children handled numbers in a linear way. Materials and Methods: A number line estimation task with a 0-10 interval was used in both the pretest and the posttest. For the intervention training, each child received a tablet computer and could play on a digital number line for four 15-min sessions. Children's hand and finger movements were manipulated during instruction in different conditions: Freely jumping or pointing. Results : Children's estimation accuracy increased after playing with the digital number line. However, the way in which behavior was organized during the training period resulted in different accuracy performances. Conclusions: These results show that minor changes in the behavioral system can lead to significantly different learning gains and that numerical knowledge is embodied in the system the child mobilizes.
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Rethinking the place of socioeconomic status identity in students' academic achievement
Chetan Sinha, Arvind Kumar Mishra
April-June 2015, 2(2):36-42
The present review attempts to understand the role of social class disparities in academic achievement domain. The issue of socioeconomic status (SES) and academic achievement gap has been observed from different perspectives. In explaining the phenomena of the academic achievement gap, literature from the observers' viewpoint, indicated toward SES and the individual level factors such as home resource and ability. This undermined actor' perspectives and experiences influenced by macro-level facets eventually shape the subjective belief system of the individual. Thus, the present review concludes that, (a) SES as social structure and individual as agency are not separate, but mutually constituted aspects of society and (b) this aspects of society forming one's identity which operates situationally in a domain of ability and achievement, framed in the comparative context of dominant identity binaries.
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